Once kids learn about various vocabularies , begin or learn to read . They have some base knowledge about language and varied topics , stories , science , real life examples as they listen or look at various topics and picture stories .Its time to introduce them to the process of reading on their own and learning to comprehend what they are reading correctly .
The techniques and strategies required for reading comprehension can be done by helping them through practice and going through the process and teaching them various strategies that will help them develop successful reading skills. Sometimes as we read we know exactly when to take those breaks or make connections or form meaningful flow , this comes to us naturally . And as we read it becomes easier for the child to understand .But when a child has to read alone and has to make meaningful context about the story and parts as it progresses it requires guided reading with proper strategy.
This requires lots of practice. Give them various content to read from some that are known , some from varied topics, stories of different kind like ones with a scenarios , acts , conversations , morals, about a process, about a place setup .Every different kind of story has a different flow or style or language this gives them exposure to different kind of materials to read from. But a common strategy can be followed that makes reading to comprehend easier for kids.
Reading comprehension needs to cover various aspects as a reader especially with kids at young age.
- Understanding the setup , the characters , the flow of the story
- As the reading progresses understanding various questions like who is speaking to whom about what or who. The reason behind the scene or conversation. What is likely to happen next.
- Make meaningful links and predict progress of the content.
- What does the phrase or sentence at a point mean , how could it mean different at a different place in the story or in another content , help them yo understand new vocabularies.
- What was conveyed through the story or content .Help them through the process of visualizing and inferencing about the story rather than just what is being read or said in the story.
- Help them clearly define or determine the actual problem and solution or the process or sequence or the main idea of the story.
- At proper intervals or point help them to think about the cause and effect of the actions or scenarios or conversations.
- Also help the identify the time frame , order and tense of the actions or events as the story progresses what speaks about the time in the sentence.
A common strategy that can help to develop comprehension skills discussed above in young readers;
- Make connections with predictions using their prior knowledge or experiences from similar topics or main ideas being discussed.
- Monitoring / clarifying / Checking the flow and meaning – Using proper breaks or pauses and making meaningful links during reading. After reading thinking about what is being read and the details of the text what is being said to whom , when .Understanding the flow what happened before the next sequence in action or text. Help them understand if there are any mistakes and clarify and think aloud to come to proper meaning of the text or flow. As the text progresses
- Inferencing- Drawing inferences or the meaning or what is being said and construct meaning or reason from it. Draw correct conclusion from background information what is written in the text and the reason behind the text or what is not spoken in the text or it implies. Why was it being said , what reaction it might arise or what does it say about the character etc.
- Questioning asking different questions to help the reader focus on the meaning of the text before ,during and after reading. Help these questions to activate the thinking about the text or a piece in the text , about the main idea , about predictions
- Summarizing or retelling – Help the reader to tell the story in their own words and help s the reader to analyze to pick up the important parts and make the story with the main idea of the text.
- Visualizing or Graphical organizing – Help the readers visualize as they read, They can use the illustrations or make their own mental images of the various parts of the story . Graphical organizing like story maps -theme , character , problem , events and outcome ; flowchart for process ; cycle showing events of time, hierarchy chart to categorize topics, for extracting and constructing meaning of the text.
Choose books and text wisely depending upon the age , those that cover topics known , have language and written age appropriately . Ones that have illustrations or without illustrations . The structure of sentences and the format of the story whether its being author perspective or conversation or about place or scenario or about morals or lessons. Depending on the text is a narrative text or expository text accordingly help make summary and use graphic organizers. Reading to comprehend develops communication skills , listening skills, inferencing , summarizing , thinking all that makes reading even more important in the development process of a child.